Heterogeneous catalysts are used in almost all production processes in the chemical industry, but can also be found in every modern car. The activity and specificity of a catalyst is determined by the chemical composition of the outermost layers. Therefore, comprehensive surface analysis is indispensable in every phase of catalyst development and catalyst use.
Examples of the use of surface analytical techniques in the characterization of catalysts include:
- chemical composition of the surface
- influence of the preparation on the catalyst performance
- causes of catalyst aging and deactivation
- characterization of the metal particle size
- influence of chemical and thermal treatments
Since the surface of a catalyst changes depending on the reactor conditions, it is necessary to ensure the appropriate environmental conditions during an analysis. Therefore, the catalysts should be prepared in situ for analysis.